Indonesian cuisine ~ World Food and Drink

Friday, December 9, 2011

Indonesian cuisine

Indonesian cuisine is a reflection of diverse cultures and traditions come from the archipelago consisting of about 6,000 islands and holds an important place in the national culture of Indonesia in general and almost all Indonesian cuisine is rich with the flavor comes from spices like nutmeg, pepper, key retrieval, galangal , ginger, kencur, turmeric, coconut and palm sugar followed by the use of cooking techniques and ingredients according to tradition, there are also indigenous influences that come through the trade such as from India, China, Middle East, and Europe.

Basically there is not one singular "Indonesian cuisine", but rather, the diversity of regional cuisines influenced locally by the Culture of Indonesia and foreign influence. For example, rice is processed into white rice, diamond or a rice cake (steamed rice) as a food staple for the majority population of Indonesia to the eastern However the more commonly used also corn, sago, cassava, and sweet potato and sago. Landscape form of presentation is generally presented in most of Indonesia in the form of staple foods with side dishes of meat, fish or vegetable side dish.

Throughout its history, Indonesia has been involved in world trade due to the location and its natural resources. Cooking techniques and authentic Indonesian food grown and then influenced by the culinary art of India, the Middle East, China, and eventually Europe. Spanish and Portuguese traders brought a variety of food from the Americas long before the Dutch succeeded in mastering Indonesia. Maluku island renowned as the "Spice Islands", has also donated herb plants native to Indonesia to the world of culinary arts. Culinary arts area of ​​the eastern part of Indonesia is similar to the art of cooking Polynesia and Melanesia.

Sumatran cuisine, for example, often show the influence of the Middle East and India, such as the use of curry in the dish of meat and vegetables, while Javanese cuisine evolved from the original cooking techniques archipelago. Elements of Chinese food culture can be observed in some Indonesian dishes. Dishes such as noodles, meatballs, and spring rolls have been absorbed in the art of Indonesian cuisine.

Beberapa type of cuisine native to Indonesia also now be found in several Asian countries. Indonesia popular dishes such as satay, rendang and sambal also popular in Malaysia and Singapore. Ingredients of soy-based foods like tofu and tempeh variations, are also very popular. Tempe is considered as the original discovery of Java, a local adaptation of fermented soybeans. Other types of fermented soy foods are oncom, similar to tempeh but using different kinds of mushrooms, oncom very popular in West Java.

Indonesian food is generally eaten with a spoon using a combination of cutlery on the right hand and fork in your left hand, though in many places (such as West Java and West Sumatra) are also commonly found to be fed directly with bare hands. At a certain restaurant or common household use hands to eat, such as seafood restaurants, traditional Sundanese and Padang restaurants, or shop tent and Chicken Fried Catfish Pecel typical of East Java. Places like this are usually also present the finger bowl, a bowl of tap water with a lime wedge to give a fresh scent. A bowl of water should not be drunk; only used for washing hands before eating and after using their bare hands. Using chopsticks to eat prevalent in restaurants serving Chinese cuisine that has been adapted into Indonesian cuisine such as chicken noodle or dumpling noodles, fried noodles and Shahe fried (fried flat noodles, like Char Kway Teow).

Using water buffalo to plow their fields in Java; Rice is the staple food of the people of Indonesia: Indonesia is the third largest rice producing country in the world. Rice farming a lot to change the landscape of Indonesia.

Rice is the staple food for the whole society of modern Indonesia, [1] and rice farming occupies a prime position in the culture of Indonesia; shape the landscape; sold in the market; is the basic ingredient of many types of food that savory to sweet. In general, rice is eaten in the form of plain rice which dreams of a little taste of fresh vegetables and side dishes of rice friends by his side as a source of protein and other nutrient sources. Rice can also be used as a diamond (rice steamed in woven coconut roan), rice cake (rice steamed in banana leaf packaged), peek (rice crackers), snacks, noodles, noodles, rice wine, and fried rice.

Rice included in the daily diet, but as the development of technology, it is possible to trade in paddy and rice from elsewhere. Finding evidence of wild rice found in Sulawesi island from about 3000 BC. Meskipin Thus, early evidence of rice farming from the inscriptions found in the eighth century Javanese king Yeng said applying the tax in the form of rice. Division of labor between men, women, and cattle remain stable in rice farming in Indonesia, such as encountered in the carving of Prambanan temple reliefs, Central Java from the ninth century: Plow fields tied to the buffalo; woman planting seeds and pound rice, and males carrying rice harvest pole on his shoulder. In the sixteenth century, Europeans visiting the Indonesian islands saw rice as food prestigious presented by the aristocracy and nobility during the ceremony and celebration party.

Rice agriculture requires adequate sunlight. Planting rice in Indonesia associated with the development of agricultural tools from metal and livestock raising buffalo to plow their fields and manure used for fertilizer. Original landscape Indonesia blanketed by tropical rainforest, but is slowly being replaced by rice fields and farming settlements to develop rice that has evolved over 1500 years.

Another staple food is maize (in dry areas such as Madura and East Nusa Tenggara), sago (in the eastern part of Indonesia), cassava (dried and called 'tiwul' as an alternative to the staple food in arid areas such as Java and Wonogiri Gunungkidul), cassava and tubers (especially in a bad season).

Ulek sauce, complementary commonly found in Indonesia.

Renowned worldwide as the "Spice Islands", the islands of Maluku spice plants originally donated for the culinary arts world. Spices or herbs such as nutmeg, cloves, galangal is native to Indonesia, while black pepper, turmeric, lemon grass, onion, cinnamon, nutmeg, coriander and tamarind was introduced from India as ginger, green onion, and garlic are introduced from China. Herb from Asia that has developed since time immemorial, and has become an integral part of the culinary arts of Indonesia.

In ancient times, the Kingdom of Sunda and then Sultanate of Banten renowned worldwide as a major producer of black pepper with the best quality. Maritime empire like Srivijaya and Majapahit also grown and prospered thanks to the spice trade between the spice islands of Maluku in the archipelago with India and China. Then VOC also achieve great advantages of the world spice trade. Predilection of Indonesia will be more spicy foods enriched with the introduction of chilies from the Americas by Spanish traders since the 16th century. Since then the sauce becomes an important part in Indonesian cuisine.

A mixture of spices as a seasoning base Indonesian cuisine, including a combination of cinnamon, [citation needed] star anise, [citation needed] coriander seeds, cumin and white, [citation needed] black pepper, cardamom [citation needed] and red peppers, [citation needed] with the composition of spices according to regional variations.

Peanut Sauce (Seasoning Nuts)

Peanut sauce is an essential part of gado-gado.
One important feature of Indonesian cuisine is the use of peanut sauce in a wide range of typical Indonesian dishes like satay, gado-gado, Karedok, ketoprak, and pecel. Peanut sauce poured over the top is usually the main ingredient (meat or vegetable) to give a taste, or simply as a dipping sauce "peanut sauce" (a mixture of chili sauce and ground peanuts) to the brains or sticky rice. Introduced from Mexico by the Portuguese and Spanish traders in the 16th century, occupies a privileged position nut in the culinary arts of Indonesia as a popular sauce. Indonesian peanut sauce or seasonings represent the complex and down to earth, rather than a thick and sweet spice. Peanut thrives in tropical climates of Southeast Asia, and now can be found in the form of fried, baked, sliced ​​finely, ground, poured over the dish or a dip. Peanut sauce to achieve a sophisticated level of development in Indonesia, with a subtle balance of flavors derived from a variety of materials as prescribed for each type of peanut sauce; peanuts, palm sugar, garlic, onion, ginger, tamarind, lime, lemon grass , salt, chili, pepper, soy sauce, everything is mashed and mixed with additional water to achieve the proper texture. The secret of good peanut sauce is "not too thick and not too thin". Indonesian peanut sauce not too sweet when compared to Thai peanut sauce (which is an adaptation of the mixture). Gado-gado is eaten with peanut sauce is available almost all over Indonesia and displays a subtle balance of flavors sweet, spicy, and sour.

Coconut milk

Grate the coconut meat to get the coconut milk.
Buras, rice cooked with coconut milk, served with spicy grated coconut flakes serundeng, from Makassar.

Because Indonesia is located in the tropical region, so long ago the people of Indonesia have used a variety of tropical crops such as oil wealth. One of the typical Indonesian cuisine is a lot of wear coconut milk, such as rendang, soto, vegetable lodeh, opor chicken, as well as soft drinks and ice cendol doger. Coconut milk is not only Indonesia's cooking, because coconut milk is also known in the art of Indian cooking, Samoa, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, to Brazil. Nevertheless coconut milk is often used in Indonesian cuisine, especially in Padang cuisine, while at the Minahasa cuisine coconut is rarely used in cooking, except for a few cakes like klappertart.

There are two types of coconut milk in cooking Indonesia, thin coconut milk and coconut milk. This distinction is based on water content it contains. Dilute coconut milk is usually used for vegetables such berkuah lodeh and soto, while coconut milk is used for rendang and various cakes and snacks. Coconut milk can be obtained from grated fresh coconut at the market or in cardboard packaging in supermarkets.

Once the coconut juice is obtained and the coconut milk, grated coconut pulp can be used as an ointment, seasoned and mixed vegetables. Ointment like gado-gado, the difference is changed to spice peanut sauce grated coconut. Coconut pulp can also be roasted and spiced serundeng. However, to get more tasty, you should not use coconut pulp, but which still contains fresh coconut juice. Serundeng grated coconut can be mixed with slices of marinated meat or simply sprinkled over soup or rice. One example of the use of rich coconut milk is a "Native" from Makassar, glutinous rice wrapped in banana leaves and cooked in coconut milk, then sprinkled grated coconut spicy serundeng similar.

Time to eat

For western Indonesian region, the food is usually cooked in the morning before noon to eat at midday for lunch. Indonesian families generally do not set a definite time to eat together where all family members must be present. For this reason most foods are made so durable and remain edible even if left at room temperature for several hours. Often the same dish warmed again for dinner. Indonesian food is generally surrounds the rice made from long grain rice locally. Food can consist of soup or a vegetable side dishes and main. Whatever type of cooking, often equipped with a sauce.

For the region of eastern Indonesia, local communities are more influenced by the culture of the Pacific islands, such as in Papua and East Timor, a source of carbohydrates derived from sago or roots.
[Edit] Parties and celebrations: Tumpeng and Rijsttafel
Cone of yellow rice, eaten at feasts and celebrations.

Many feasts and ceremonies in traditional Indonesian customs involving food and festivities. One of the best examples is the cone. Cone originating from Java, in the form of a cone-shaped rice surrounded diverse cuisine of Indonesia. Cone usually is in celebration of "salvation". Rice cone is printed using a conical woven bamboo, rice itself can be plain white rice, rice uduk (cooked with coconut milk), or yellow rice (colored with "saffron"). It is surrounded by typical rice dishes such as vegetable ointment Indonesia, fried chicken, stew meat, anchovies beans, fried shrimp, boiled egg, sliced ​​egg rolls, tempeh orek, potato cakes, corn cakes, sambal goreng ati, and others. Cone of confidence comes from indigenous peoples and people of Indonesia who glorify the mountain as the dwelling place of gods or ancestral spirits. Cone-shaped rice meant to mimic the shape of the sacred mountain. The celebration is intended as an expression of gratitude for the abundance of harvest and other blessings of the Almighty. Because it has a value of celebration and thanksgiving, until now tumpeng often serves as a "birthday cake version of Indonesia".

Other festivities Indonesia is rijsttafel (Dutch: rice table), these dishes showcase elegant luxury junket typical rich people in colonial times as well as display the diversity of the culinary arts of Indonesia. Rijsttafel classic consists of 40 kinds of dishes that are served by 40 waiters who was barefoot, wearing formal dress white uniforms, blangkon, and batik cloth wrapped around their waists. Feast of contemporary Indonesia is currently adopting Western-style buffet dishes. Also called a buffet or sideboard can usually be found at the wedding or other celebration. Buffet served on long tables. The layout of the wedding buffet in Indonesia usually consists of: dishes, cutlery (spoon and fork), napkin tissue, placed at the tip, followed by a dish of rice (white rice and fried rice), a series of dishes typical of Indonesia and is sometimes also presented foreign dishes, chili, crackers, and ending with a glass of water or soft drink at the end of the buffet table.


The most common and popular drinks in Indonesia are tea and coffee. Households Indonesia usually serve sweet tea and brewed coffee for guests. Since the colonial Dutch East Indies, especially in Java plantation known as a producer of tea, coffee, and sugar. Since then the tea and hot coffee favored by the citizens of Indonesia. Jasmine black tea is the most popular type of tea in Indonesia, but due to increased awareness of health, green tea began to rage. Usually coffee or tea as a beverage served hot or warm, but ice cold sweet tea is also popular. Bottled tea is sweet jasmine tea beverages in bottles are popular in Indonesia, even competing with soft drinks like coca cola soda foreign and Fanta. Coffee milk is a version of Indonesia for Café au lait.

Fruit juices are also very popular, including orange juice, guava juice, mango juice, soursop juice, and juice are usually served with avocado plus sweetened condensed milk or white chocolate as a dessert drink.
Avocado juice with chocolate milk

Many popular drinks on ice and can be categorized as a dessert drink. Ice is popular among other coconut ice, grass jelly ice, ice or ice dawet cendol, red bean ice, iced cantaloupe, and seaweed ice.

Sweet hot drinks can also be found, such as bajigur and bandrek are particularly popular in West Java. This warm drink made from coconut milk and brown sugar with a mixture of other spices. Sekoteng (drink warm milk with nuts, pieces of bread, and girlfriend china) can be found in West Java and Jakarta. Wedang ginger (ginger drink warm) and wedang round (hot drink with balls of sweet) especially popular in Yogyakarta, Central Java and East Java.

As a country with a majority Muslim population, Indonesia Muslims are forbidden to drink alcohol. However, since ancient indigenous tribes in the archipelago has been known alcoholic beverage. Based on news from China, Old Javanese people drink sort of wine that is tapped from coconut palm wine called. Wine is now popular in the region survive and tribal Batak of North Sumatra predominantly Christian. Batak traditional tavern called lapo wine presents wine. In Solo, Central Java, ciu (local adaptation of Chinese rice wine) are also known. Brem (rice wine) are also popular bottled Bali in Bali. Indonesia is also developing local brands of beer such as Bir Bintang and Anker beer. Snacks and snacks

Seller Meatballs in Bandung

In many big cities were prevalent Chinese snacks such as dumplings, noodle, and the meatballs are sold either by the merchant sidewalk to the curb or in a restaurant. Chinese cuisine dishes are often adapted into Indonesia. One example of adaptation is rarely used pork and beef to be replaced because it fit with the majority of citizens are mostly Muslim Indonesia. One of the roadside hawker food is a popular dumplings and batagor (abbreviation of Meatballs Fried Tofu), pempek, pureed chicken, green bean porridge, satay, fried rice and noodles, fried bean sprouts, laksa and fried.

Roadside hawker Indonesia also includes a variety of sweet drinks, such as ice or ice dawet cendol, ice stoned, grass jelly ice, ice doger, mixed ice, ice cutting, and ice-puter. Cakes Indonesia is often referred to as the snack market. Indonesia has a rich variety of snacks and pastries, both savory and sweet. Popular cakes include risoles, pastel, spring rolls, lemper, rice cake, know the contents, lapis legit, getuk, bakpia, bika ambon, lupis, lemang, banana cake, klepon, onde-onde, nagasari, soes, and steamed sponge.

Roadside hawker traders commonly found in Indonesia, as well as itinerant traders who use wheelbarrows, bicycles, or yoke. Roadside food traders or peddlers is called street hawkers - (based on five-foot wide sidewalk lanes in Indonesia, but other theories say the word 'street' based on the number of three feet by two feet merchant wagon!). Most street vendors or sidewalk has a typical and specific tool to announce its presence, such as satay traders shouting "teeee sateee", traders fried banging pans, bowls or hitting balls merchants kentongan, or chicken noodle merchant kentongan hit or block of wood.


Rambutan is sold on the market in Jakarta.

Markets in Indonesia is full of different kinds of tropical fruits. The fruit is an important part of Indonesian diet, either eaten immediately, made sweet snacks (like fruit ice), presented a savory or spicy dishes such as salad, fried bananas, processed into chips such as jackfruit chips and banana chips.

Many types of fruits like Mangosteen, Rambutan, Jackfruit, Durian, and Banana, is a plant is native to Indonesia, while some types of fruit are imported from other tropical countries, though the origin of the fruit is still debated. Banana and coconut are very important, not only for Indonesian cuisine, but for various purposes such as building materials for walls or roofs, oil, mats, packaging, etc.


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