Japanese Cuisine ~ World Food and Drink

Wednesday, December 7, 2011

Japanese Cuisine

Japanese cuisine and food does not always have to be a "food that is eaten by Japanese people from generation to generation." Japanese food varies according to age, social level, and area of ​​residence. How to cook Japanese cuisine borrows a lot of cooking from countries of East Asia and Western countries. In the current era, the definition of Japanese food is all eaten Japanese food and the food is not the cuisine of other countries of origin.

In a narrow sense, the Japanese cuisine refers to the various different types of foods that are unique to Japan. Foods that have long been eaten for generations and the Japanese, but Japan can not be called typical Japanese food. Foods such as gyudon or nikujaga is an example of Japanese food because it uses a typical Japanese condiments like shoyu, dashi and mirin. Food sold Japanese restaurants such as vendors and food stalls kappō buckwheat is also called Japanese food. Foods that contain beef is often considered not Japanese cuisine because eating meat since the Meiji Restoration began only about 130 years ago. According to people outside of Japan, a variety of beef dishes such as sukiyaki and gyudon also include Japanese food. In broad terms, if the dishes are made from new food ingredients known to the Japanese people is classified as a part of Japanese food, then the definition of Japanese cuisine is the food that is cooked with spices unique to Japan.

Japanese cuisine is often a blend of various foodstuffs and cuisine of various countries. Grated radish mixed with the sauce when eating steak or hamburg steak, salad with dressing and grated radish is an example of fusion of Western food with typical Japanese seasonings. Spaghetti sauce mixed mentaiko, tarako, natto, shiso leaf or umeboshi is an example of Western food enjoyed with food that has a flavor that is familiar with the Japanese tongue. Steak with grated radish can not actually referred to as Japanese food but Japanese-style steak (steak wafū). Under this rule, the term wafū (和风 Japanese?) Is used to refer to foods that are commonly found and eaten in Japan, but cooked by cooks from outside Japan.

Under the rules wafū, some foods hard to be classified as Japanese food because food is a mixture between Japanese and foreign food:

Western food mixed with a unique Japanese food ingredients, such as udon Sarada (Western food but the salad is mixed with the typical Japanese udon), curry, and anpan (bread comes from a typical Western contain Ogura Japan).
Typical Japanese food that comes from abroad but are made with recipes that have been modified according to local tastes, such as ramen and gyoza.
Foods that are based on ingredients and cooking methods difficult decision must be put into the category of Western food or Japanese food, such as ginger pork and butashōgayaki both point at the same meal.
The majority of Japanese cuisine culinary expert opinion is easy to distinguish from neighboring countries such as cuisine Korean cuisine and Chinese cuisine. However, a number of Korean food is also influenced by Japanese cuisine. In Korea, also known kimbab (futomakizushi), miso soup, and Takuan (pickled radish) which is a typical Japanese food.Characteristics

Kaiseki cuisine for breakfast Food items

In general, Japanese cooking ingredients such as: rice, agricultural produce (vegetables and nuts), and seafood. Seasonings be made from konbu dashi, fish and shiitake, plus miso and shoyu. In contrast to the cuisines of other countries, Japanese food did not use the seasoning of spices from seeds (pepper) or flavoring yanng contain seeds (such as chili) that must be crushed or mashed. Japanese cuisine also does not use strong-smelling herbs such as garlic. Soybeans are the main ingredients of processed foods. Flavoring is usually a scented vegetables are finely chopped or grated. Japanese cuisine is generally low in fat, but contain high levels of salt.

Japanese cuisine known five main herbs that must be entered consecutively in the order sa-shi-su-se-so which is an acronym for:
granulated sugar (Sato)
salt (shio)
vinegar (su)
Shoyu (seuyu: the old spelling for shoyu)
miso (miso).
In accordance with the rules sa-shi-su-se-so, sugar is the flavor that is inserted first, followed by salt, vinegar, soy sauce, and miso.

Presentation of food

Japan's main food consists of rice (sometimes mixed crops), soups and side dishes. Another case of Chinese cuisine, or European cuisine, Japanese cuisine knows no stage (course) in the presentation. In European or Chinese food culture, food is served in stages, ranging from appetizers, soups, main dishes, and ends with dessert. Japanese cuisine served all at once. In terms of serving dishes in Japanese cuisine is not known the difference between the presentation of ordinances in the house with the presentation in restaurants ordinance. And kaiseki meal is an exception because the food is presented in stages.
In terms of enjoying the food, Japanese cuisine can be easily distinguished from European cuisine or Chinese cuisine. Japanese food taste when mixed in the mouth. Pickled vegetables may be too salty if eaten just like that, but the pickles taste better when eaten with white rice. In Japanese cuisine, food is not processed in excess. Food must have the original flavor of food. How to cook or food preparation purposes only displays the original flavor of food. Food also was not cooked with pungent spices. Not familiar with Japanese cuisine cooking techniques that can ruin the appearance of freshness of ingredients and food ingredients.
Japanese cuisine chef sued versatile in various fields. They are required to have expertise in food processing, knowledge of cutlery, and the selection of the right atmosphere for enjoying food. Japanese cuisine is very different from French cuisine is very advanced in the distribution of skills in the kitchen and service to guests in the dining room.
Tableware for Japanese cuisine usually made from ceramic, porcelain, or wood lacquered with Urushi. In Japan the family home, each family member has their own rice bowls and chopsticks, and are not interchangeable with those of other family members. Chopsticks can be used wooden chopsticks, bamboo chopsticks, or disposable chopsticks. Before the technique of making pottery is known in Japan, most of cutlery is made of varnished wood. Cutlery with porcelain ornaments are generally given the pictures that act as an ornamental dish.
Japanese cuisine has a very loose rules regarding the form of ceramic dinnerware. The plate may be dark or rectangular, so it is very noticeable compared to European or American dishes. Utensils for Japanese food looks very different from the cutlery to the Chinese or Korean cuisine. Chinese cuisine uses a round plate with a simple decoration of porcelain, Korean cuisine while wearing a white porcelain without ornament or metal utensils.


Early history of the written
Nihon Shoki is the classical literature which contains the oldest history of Japanese cuisine. In it is told about the ancestors of the clan named Takahashi Iwakamutsukari-no-Mikoto. Foods that dihidangkannya form namasu pieces tuna and shellfish (hamaguri) is marinated with vinegar. Special dishes are made to the Emperor Keiko who was visiting the province of Awa when grieving over the death of Yamato Takeru. Iwakamutsukari-no-Mikoto palace served as a cook and later venerated as the god of cuisine.

 Origin of cuisine

The Japanese began eating rice since the Jomon Period. Side dishes of food that is boiled (nimono), grilled, or steamed. How to process food with frying began to be known since the time of Asuka, and comes from the Korean Peninsula and China. Tea and cuisine monks introduced in Japan along with the influx of Buddhism, but only developed among the temple. Food is vegetarian cooking monk called shōjin ryori. Pets and wild animals such as monkeys are prohibited to be used as food ingredients. In the classical literature Engishiki also told about the fermented fish called narezushi used as offerings in western Japan.

 Cuisine Nara period

Strong influence of Chinese culture at the time of Nara Japanese cuisine influences on Nara era. Food is cooked as a meal when there are ceremonies and celebrations associated with the seasons. Throughout the year there is always a celebration and binge eating. Cooking techniques from China began to be used to process your local grocery. Adjustment of the Chinese way of cooking with natural conditions in Japan finally gave birth to a typical Japanese cuisine.

 Cuisine Heian period

In the Heian period, Japanese cuisine continues to evolve with the influence of mainland China. The Japanese then began to recognize the food as karaage and pastries from the Tang Dynasty (tōgashi), and natto. The flow of cooking and dining etiquette evolve in society. On the orders of Emperor Koko, Fujiwara no Yamakage edit Shijo flow cook book titled Shijōryū Hōchōshiki. Until recently, traditional Japanese restaurant still has a shrine to Fujiwara no Yamakage and Iwakamutsukari-no-Mikoto.

Cuisine Kamakura period

Processed foods from the idea that so-called ganmodoki began to be known along with the popularity of tea drinking traditions and teachings of Zen. In the Kamakura period, foods in small portions to a monk who underwent exercise called kaiseki. Buddhist priest named Eisai introduced tea brought from China to be enjoyed with kaiseki dishes. Cuisine is later developed into a food reception which is also called kaiseki, but written with different kanji characters
Cuisine Muromachi period

Entering the Muromachi period, the samurai involved in the affairs of the cooking at the imperial court. Manners while eating is also growing. Ogasawara stream etiquette are still known today originated from the samurai and nobles etiquette Muromachi period.
Chūnagon named Masatomo founded Yamakage no cooking Shijōryū flow. This stream is publishing a book titled Shijōryū Hōchōsho cook (Cooking Book Shijo flow). Meanwhile, the Ashikaga clan founded the flow Ōkusaryū cooking. People started to become fussy about how to cook and serve food. Honzen style food (no seishiki honzen) and kaiseki style are the two main streams Muromachi period of Japanese cuisine. In honzen style, individually served food on the table called ozen short. Portions served enough to eat one. In kaiseki style, the food served in small portions like the food served in a tea ceremony.
Namban is the ancient Japanese term for "overseas", particularly Portugal and Southeast Asia. From the known term namban said nambansen (ships from overseas). The arrival of ships from abroad from Muromachi period until the Sengoku era brings with it various types of cuisine called namban ryori (cuisine abroad) and nambangashi (cakes overseas). Kastela cakes using recipes from Portugal is one example of nambangashi.

 Cuisine of the Edo period

Culture of rapidly growing cities in the Edo period. Foods such as city dwellers and tea tempura wheat (mugicha) are sold at market stalls in shock. In those days, in Edo began many specialty restaurants found buckwheat and nigirizushi. Ōrusuichaya is the name for the traditional diner (Ryotei) used a samurai when entertaining guests with a festive meal. Enjoyed a leisurely meal while drinking sake, and not follow the formal procedures such as eating or cooking Honzen kaiseki cuisine. Ōrusuichaya cuisine called kaiseki cuisine (kaiseki ryori , Cooking meals), and written with different kanji characters of "kaiseki" for the tea ceremony.

The technique of making traditional Japanese cakes (wagashi) developed rapidly thanks to the availability of sugar that have become commonplace. Cutlery of ceramic and porcelain began to widely used and adorned with pictures of artistic work seriously. Meat cattle began to consume the Japanese and beef eaten as a remedy. Since the mid-Edo period began the familiar vegetable carving techniques, and food began decorated with ornaments from radish (daikon wachigai). At that time also began to be known by the odd boiled egg yolk and white are out of eggs in the (kimigaeshi tamago).

 Cuisine Kanto

Modern Japanese cuisine is the result of improved cooking Edo period. Daimyo from all over Japan know sankin kōtai obligations. They must come to Edo to perform tasks with shogun rule. Arrival daimyo from all over the country as well as how to cook and bring food typical of their respective regions. Food items brought entourage daimyo from all corners of Japan adds to the diversity of Japanese cuisine at Edo. Everything is coupled with fresh and delicious seafood from the Gulf of Edo called Edomae. Seafood from the Pacific Ocean like the swordfish already be fixed when making sashimi menu.

Fish of the families Sparidae, known in Japan as a tai fish is a symbol of prosperity in Japan. Tai fish grilled whole without cut is a special meal on special occasions. Meals served at the banquet consisted of two types: food to eat at a party, and foods that serve as decoration. Bake the fish tai included in the decoration of food is okay to eat at a party. However, fish baked in the party is actually more of a decoration because it is intended to be brought home by the guests as souvenirs. The tradition of bringing home party food as souvenirs for family back home from the Edo period and continued until now. In addition to grilled fish, guests are usually welcome to bring home kinton (chestnut beans and mashed sweet potatoes) and kamaboko.
Dishes are born from a variety of diversity in the Kanto region called Edo cuisine or cuisine Kanto. Kanto cuisine designation used to distinguish it from Kansai dish known people first. Characteristic of Tokyo cuisine is the use of soy sauce (shoyu) as a determinant of flavors, including for food berkuah (shirumono) and nimono. The tradition of bringing home party food is the reason the use of soy sauce in large quantities in the Kanto cuisine, meaning that taste is still pretty cool though. Unlike the cuisine Kanto, Kansai cuisine it is not too salty, although relying on salt as a determinant of taste.

 Cuisine Kansai

Kansai cuisine cuisine is the name for Osaka and Kyoto cuisine. Edo culture is different from the glitzy, Kyoto cuisine reflects the elegant culture of Kyoto. Kyoto cuisine is influenced cuisine Buddhist temples. His trademark is the use of lots of vegetables, tofu, bean curd, but little seafood because Kyoto geographically distant from the sea. Kyoto cuisine delivery how to cook with minimal seasoning to taste authentic tofu or bean curd (which was already "thin") is not lost. Intelligence processing dried fish such as bodara (dried cod) and migakinishin (dried herring) into a tasty dish is a privilege Kyoto cuisine.
Osaka is a seaside city with abundant seafood. Therefore, knowing the various ways Osaka cuisine seafood processing. Delicious seafood processed in order to be eaten on the spot and not to take home as souvenirs. Osaka cuisine is not concerned with the taste of food when it's cold because in principle "food eaten". Osaka cuisine principle contrary to the principle that thinking Kanto cuisine food taste when it's cold.

 Influence of Western cuisine

At the beginning of the Meiji era, European cuisine has become a popular Japanese who make daily contact with strangers. Created among the people of Western-style food (yōshoku) which is an adaptation of European cuisine. Different schools of cooking on the decline, and the flow Hōchōshiki is the only stream that continues to survive. Prohibition of eating meat is removed at the discretion of the Meiji Government and Shinbutsu Haibutsu Kishaku Bunri so as to create sukiyaki. Meanwhile, honzen ryori which is the main stream of Japanese cuisine is becoming obsolete. Kaiseki cuisine has become a standard food in traditional restaurant (Ryotei) and traditional inns (ryokan).
Vegetarian cuisine (shōjinryōri) continues a tradition of Buddhist temples. Small portion dishes called kaiseki ryori Survived until today as the tea ceremony dishes. In agriculture, mustard and spinacia began to be planted on a large scale. In many cities began to found a house that has a table called chabudai short legged tray instead called ozen. Chabudai existence that can be used as a dining table for four people who used to change the meal done individually with a personal ozen into family gatherings.
Due to great Kanto earthquake which took massive casualties, chef heir to the tradition of the Edo cuisine come to be reduced, and the tradition of cuisine honzen began to fade. Dining etiquette began to loose, and the Japanese were more like a relaxed atmosphere while eating. After World War II, advances in ease of transportation and communication led to the thinness of the differences between the regions about food and cooking for the same meal. Nevertheless, fundamental differences in terms of flavor and taste remain.

Ingredients and seasonings

 Composition of food since ancient times
Grains, vegetables, legumes (soybeans), buckwheat, fruits, and tubers.
Wild plants, mushrooms, seaweed
Chicken eggs, seafood

spice since ancient times
Andaliman (sanshō)
Green onions (scallions types with more green stems (aonegi) used in the Kansai region, while green onions with more parts of the stem is white (nebukanegi) favored in the Kanto area)
Shiso leaf as a flavoring
Red peppers in a very small amount, especially for powder mixtures shichimi

 Food items since the Meiji era

Meat cattle
 Herbs and spices from abroad
Pepper (from China)
Uster Sauce
Curry powder


 Traditional Cuisine
Dishes are becoming known in the Edo period, and the influence of the cuisine among the samurai, but eventually disappeared in the Meiji era.
Dishes without meat in Buddhist temples.
Kaisekiryōri , Kaiseki cuisine)
Dishes are served in the stages of presentation in small portions.
Kaisekiryōri , Cooking dinner)
Banquet meals at traditional Japanese restaurants (Ryotei) who enjoyed while drinking sake. The presentation is done in stages as kaiseki cuisine.

Daily food

Cooking rice
White rice, red rice (sekihan), kowameshi
Rice from rice that has not disosoh
Rice mixed with wheat (mugimeshi)
Seasoned rice vinegar
Porridge (okayu), porridge of rice (or ojiya zōsui)
Takikomigohan (ditanak rice with a little side dish)
Kakegohan (rice poured something): mugitoro (wheat and pour the grated tubers ditanak yamaimo or nagaimo).
Mochi and Dango
Food berkuah (shirumono)
Miso soup
Sumashijiru (suimono)
Tessa (sashimi fugu fish)
Tataki (digarang large pieces of fish with a large fire, cooked on the outside, raw on the inside)
Tsuke (sashimi, marinated with soy sauce)
Tsukemono (salted vegetables): Takuan, umeboshi, shibazuke, misozuke (fermentation with miso), kasuzuke (fermented with sake lees), nukazuke (fermented with rice husks), wasabizuke (mixed vegetables with wasabi paste)
Noodles: udon, soba, Somen
Nabe: Oden, mizudaki, shabu-shabu, sukiyaki,
Fried foods: tempura, satsumas-age, kakiage, karaage
Grilled foods: grilled fish, teriyaki, yakitori, kabayaki
Nimono: nikujaga, kinpira
Steamed foods: chawanmushi, sakamushi (stir-fried with sake)
Nerimono: the shape of fried mashed fish meat and flour added.
Aemono: marinated vegetables vinegar-based sauce or miso.
Ohitasi: boiled vegetables flavored with dashi.


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